According to the use and the composition of the medicine head, matchsticks can be divided into two categories: daily matches (common matches) and special matches. According to the shape of the package and the raw materials used, there are 3 types of daily matches: wood stem matches, wax paper stem matches, and book matches.
① Wooden stalk matchstick: The matchstick with a square cross-section is made of relatively softwood. The end of the stalk is covered with paraffin and medicinal slurry. After drying, it is packed in a small box made of wood chips or cardboard. The side of the box is coated with phosphorus layer. This is the most common match.
② Waxed stick match stick: It is called a wax stick match for short. Use thin paper soaked in molten paraffin and squeeze it into long stems with round or square cross-sections, then cut them to make matchsticks. It is suitable for areas lacking wood. Due to the large wax content of the stem, the ignition performance is better, and the burning time is 2 to 3 times longer than that of the same specification. It is suitable for field operations such as navigation, fishing, hunting, and exploration. However, paraffin wax is easy to soften at higher temperatures, which reduces the stiffness of stalks and affects its use, so it is not suitable for tropical regions.
③ Book-type match: It gets its name because of its thin package and book-like shape. Its stalks are punched out of wood chips or cardboard, and each set of 10 or 15 branches. One end is connected with the base, which is in the shape of comb teeth. One end of the stem tip is stained with paraffin and medicine slurry. After the match is made, it is bound into a volume with a cardboard cover. The phosphorus layer shall be applied to the binding part of the cover. When using, tear off and scratch one by one. The match is beautiful in appearance and easy to carry.
Special matches are formulated with special drug heads to produce different special functions. There are five main types:
①Wind-resistant waterproof match: The medicine head contains about 15% more oxidant than ordinary matches, and has a strong fire performance; the surface is covered with a layer of moisture-proof film to prevent moisture; the medicine head is thick and long, about 5mm in diameter and 30mm in length. After burning, it burns at a speed of 4 to 6 mm per second, and can continue to burn for 5 to 7 seconds evenly. This characteristic makes it resistant to strong winds and not afraid of rain, and is suitable for field operators such as geology, hydrology, meteorology, navigation, fishing and hunting.
② High-temperature matches: The drug head is divided into two layers, the inside and the outside. The inner layer is medicine for windproof and waterproof matches; the outer layer is made of ferric oxide, aluminum, magnesium powder and other raw materials, and is bonded with nitrocellulose solution. The size and specifications are similar to those of wind-resistant waterproof matches. It can generate a high temperature above 1200 ℃ during combustion, which can be used to ignite the welding agent, so it is also called a welding match.
③Signal match: It is also called signal tube. The diameter of the barrel is 2.5 ～ 3cm, and the length is 16 ～ 38cm. The phosphor layer is applied to the end of the cylinder cap. The medicine is mixed with strontium nitrate or barium nitrate, basic copper carbonate and other materials. After burning, it can emit continuous flames of different colors, such as red, blue, and white, with an illumination of 80 to 800 candles. It can be used for railway vehicles or marine vessels to communicate at night.
④ Burn the match multiple times: It can burn repeatedly. This kind of match doesn't need wood stem, but is made of potassium chlorate, sulfur, diacetate fiber, polyformaldehyde and fillers. After being mixed with acetone, it is pressed into a stick match with a diameter of 2-5mm. It is called match core (no match stem or head), which can be ignited by striking it on the phosphorus layer. Due to the flame retardant effect of diacetate fiber, the burning of the igniting substance is controlled, so that the whole match can not be burnt out at one time, and the purpose of multiple use can be achieved. A match that can be repeatedly struck and burned for more than 600 times has been developed.
⑤ Photosensitive match: It emits light when burning, and can make the photo film sensitive after illuminating the object. It can replace the flash for photography.