Based on the principle of friction and heat generation of objects, matches, as a fire tool that can burn when rubbed, are made by using the chemical activity of strong oxidizers and reducing agents to create.
According to records, the earliest matches were invented by the Chinese in AD 577. It was during the Northern and Southern Dynasties when wars broke out. The Northern Qi Dynasty was forced by the enemy and the shortage of materials, especially the lack of kindling material, made cooking problems. At that time, some court ladies magically invented it. Matches, but ancient Chinese matches are nothing but a kind of material to start fire. Later, it was introduced to Europe during the Marco Polo period. Later on, Europeans invented the modern match which was once called "foreign fire" by the Chinese. "Foreign Fire" can make fire by friction. The person who invented this match was Walker of England. In 1826, he used gum and water to make paste-like antimony sulfide and potassium chloride, spread it on the matchstick, and pulled it on sandpaper to produce a fire.
However, early matches produced two very fatal shortcomings: First, white phosphorus is very scarce, and it is easy to ignite when heated, which is very dangerous. In addition, white phosphorus is poisonous, and workers who make matches will be poisoned and killed if they are not careful. In 1852, after the improvement from a Swedes man, the safety match was invented. Phosphorus and sulfur compounds are used as pyrophoric materials, which must be rubbed on the box coated with red phosphorus to start a fire, which improves the safety level. But before the invention of the safety match, people have gone through generations of endless exploration.