Matches are a common household item, but many people don't know how they are produced. Today we will introduce the production process of matches. For friends who are interested, please read on. The production process may differ depending on the variety of bulk matchstickes, please see below for details.
The matchbox is coated with red phosphorus (igniter), antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3, flammable), and glass powder on the sides. The materials on the match head are generally potassium chloride, manganese dioxide (oxidant), sulfur (combustible), etc. When the two sides are rubbed together, the friction generates heat, which ignites the red phosphorus in contact with potassium chloride, causing the combustible material on the match head to burn, thereby igniting the matchstick.
To control the ignition speed, fillers such as quartz powder should be added to the match head to make the flame moderate and stable. In addition, potassium dichromate and pigments are added to improve moisture resistance and appearance, such as starch and gelatin. They are used instead of sulfur and some spices to make sulfur-free scented matches. When burned, it does not produce irritating gas SO2, emits fragrance, and makes people feel comfortable. The advantage of safe matches is that red phosphorus is non-toxic. It and the oxidizer are respectively adhered to the sides of the matchbox and matchstick, and do not come into contact when not in use.
The production of bulk matchstick stems should use wood with a loose texture, smooth texture, flammability, and no peculiar smell. Common tree species include poplar or basswood, as well as pine or spruce. Pine requires boiling to remove turpentine. After selecting the materials, the logs are sawn into sections, peeled, and spun into uniform and fine continuous sections. The stem is cut into branches of a certain size.
Soak the stems in a solution of phosphoric acid or ammonium phosphate with a concentration of about 1%, called flame retardant treatment, to prevent residual ash from falling after the match is burned. After draining off the surface moisture, the stems are sent to the stem dryer for drying to reduce the moisture content of the stems to 6%-8%. After the stem is dried, it is screened by a stem selector to remove broken branches, long strips, and wide sheets, and select stems that meet the specifications.
Match head production
The qualified stem is automatically processed by the match automatic continuous machine, which performs multiple processes such as cutting the stem, loading the stem, dipping wax, dipping medicine, drying, unloading the stem, and completing the production of the match.
The matchbox is divided into paper box and wooden box. The paper box is made of rolled paperboard or flat paper. The distributor divides the original paper roll into different widths to meet the needs of making outer boxes or inner boxes. After making the inner and outer boxes separately, they are placed together. The wooden crate is made of scar-free and good materials. The scratched inner or outer crate is spun out on the rotary box machine, then cut into strips, pasted with a box machine, dried, and labeled.
Packing and brushing phosphorus
The match and matchbox meet during the packaging process. The match is neatly packed into the box by the box-loading machine according to the specified quantity, and then the phosphor paste is brushed on the side of the box by the phosphor-brushing machine. Another type of phosphorus surface is printed on the side of the box when printing the trademark, called "printed phosphorus surface". The main components of the phosphorus paste are red phosphorus and binder. The traditional binder is leather glue, and synthetic binders are also used. After drying, 10 boxes of matches are sealed into small packages by the packaging machine and placed in the box, which is the finished product.